JapaneseJapanese polite forms

July 30 2021

In Japanese (jap.日 本 nihongo or nippongo), forms of respect, courtesy, respect or adoration towards our interlocutor are very important. They have changed for many years and are now in a simplified form. There are two options: – direct respect towards the partner of the conversation – restraint and modesty of the speaker as an...

In Japanese (jap.日 本 nihongo or nippongo), forms of respect, courtesy, respect or adoration towards our interlocutor are very important. They have changed for many years and are now in a simplified form. There are two options:

– direct respect towards the partner of the conversation

– restraint and modesty of the speaker as an expression of respect towards the partner of the Keigo conversation (jap. 敬)…

Keigo (Jap. 敬 語) is a Japanese language of salutation, which is divided into informal and formal languages. In turn, the formal language is divided into:

1) teineigo (jap.丁 寧 語) – neutral language (polite)

2) kenjōgo (jap. 謙 譲 語) – modest language (modest, tempting speaker)

3) sonkeigo (jap. 尊 敬 語) – honorific language (superior)

Of course, in other languages you can also have something like this, but it is much less clear and has less effect on grammar. In addition, it mainly concerns our interlocutor, e.g. Mr./Mrs.

Sonkeigo and kenjōgo are used for older people or people with higher social status, such as in an employee-employer or student-teacher relationship. Teineigo, on the other hand, is usually used for people who are equal to us in terms of social status, or when this position is still unknown to us. It is a formal language, and it is a language that is mastered at the beginning of learning.

Below is a table where you can see how verbs change depending on whether they are in sonkeigo or kenjōgo.

czasownik obojętny

sonkeigo

kenjōgo

znaczenie

iku 

行く

irassharu 

いらっしゃる

mairu

参る

iść, jechać

miru 

見る

goranninaru

御覧になる

haikensuru

拝見する

widzieć, oglądać

taberu 

食べる

meshiagaru

召し上がる

itadaku

頂く

jeść

There are many such examples, and it happens that one word can have several versions, depending on the degree of courtesy. Some verbs may occur, for example. sonkeigo, not kenjōgo.

In addition to verbs, nouns can also change, so the words and their more polite version are below:

Man: hito (jap. 人) – kata (jap. 方)

Tomorrow”: ashita (jap. 明日) – myōnichi (jap. 明日)

Yesterday: kinō (jap. 昨日) – sakujitsu (jap. 昨日)

Notice that, with the two words above, the text does not change in characters, but only reading it. For nouns, prefixes are often added:

1) o- (to Japanese nouns)

2) go- (to nouns of Sinjapan origin).

Warto również zapamiętać, że kiedy poruszamy temat rodziny drugiej osoby, należy używać odpowiednich słów, które będą ukazywać szacunek i grzeczność względem rozmówcy. Mówiąc w skrócie, innych słów używamy mówiąc o swoich bliskich, a innych w przypadku bliskich partnera rozmowy.

sonkeigo

kenjōgo

znaczenie

otōsan lub otōsama

お父さん lub お父様

chichi

ojciec

okaasan lub okaasama

お母さん lub お母

haha

matka

ojiisan lub ojiisama

お祖父さん lub お祖父

sofu

祖父

dziadek

obaasan lub obaasama

お祖母さん lub お祖母

sobo

祖母

babcia

ojisan lub ojisama

小父さん lub 小父様

oji

小父

wujek

obasan lub obasama

小母さん lub 小母様

oba

小母

ciocia

goshujin lub goshijunsama

ご主人 lub ご主人様

shujin

主人

mąż

okusan lub okusama

奥さん lub 奥様

tsuma

żona

musukosan

息子さん

musuko

息子

syn

ojōsan lub ojōsama

お嬢さん lub お嬢様

musume

córka

oniisan lub oniisama

お兄さん lub お兄様

ani

starszy brat

otōtosan

弟さん

otōto

młodszy brat

oneesan lub oneesama

お姉さん lub お姉様

ane

starsza siostra

imōtosan

妹さん

imōto

młodsza siostra

okosan lub okosama

お子さん lub お子様

kodomo

子供

dziecko

gokazoku

ご家族

kazoku

家族

rodzina

autor: SANDRA JAWORSKA

Contact
ul. Królowej Jadwigi 18, 85-231 Bydgoszcz
+48 732 242 007
Monday - Friday 8:00 - 20:00
Linguapro © 2022 Wszystkie prawa zastrzeżone Development: www.advit.pl