Grammar
Spanish

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LIBRO 2

Libro 2, Modulo 3El imperativo

Tryb rozkazujący

Command mode (Imperativo)

The commanding mode in Spanish is not an easy nut to crack. It is a form consisting of several elements that need to be mastered first. First, the ability to change verbs is very useful. In order to master this mode, you must first analyze how verbs behave and change in it and learn their irregular forms, and then all this practice by formulating sentences:)

In today’s post we will analyze the whole construction step by step.

1. How do we create Imperativo?

In the table you have given forms of regular verbs, as you can see forms change in contradiction e.g.

¡Chicos! ¡Hablad español! ( Boys! Speak Spanish!)

¡Chicos! ¡No habléis polaco! (Boys! Don’t speak Polish!)

¡Come más frutas! ( Eat more fruit!)

¡No coma hamburguesas! ( Don’t eat hamburgers!)

¡Vivamos felices! (Let us live happily!)

¡No vivamos en la ciudad! ? (Let’s not live in the city)

¡Señores, trabajen más! ( Do more!)

¡Señores, no trabajen tanto! ( Don’t work so much!)

2. Reflexive verbs

When you want to use the command mode with the verb reflexive verb( for example, levantarse, bañarse, lavarse) the pronoun ( me/te/se/os/nos) is placed at the end of the word e.g.

bañarse→¡Báñate! (Take a bath!)

levantarse→ ¡Levántate! (Get up)

Note

in the case of the first person plural (nos levantamos) we avoid the letter s

levantémonos! ( Lest stand up!)

and in the second person the plural d

levantaos! ( Stand up!)

3. Irregular verbs

There are verbs that have a specific variation for the imperative mode. Unfortunately, as in many cases here there is no other advice than to learn it by heart.

The most common irregular verbs are listed in the table, but note that there are many more.

Sé simpático. ( Be nice)
Vaya a descansar. (Go for a rest)
Tenedlo en cuenta. (Bear this in mind)
¡Vengan a la fiesta! ( Come to the party!)
¡Sal de aquí! (Get out of here!)
¡Niños, haced su tarea! ( Children, do your homework!)
¡Dí la verdad! ( Tell the truth!)
That is what it is. ( Listen to what I have to tell you.)
¡Sabe que puedes ganarlo! ( Know you can win it!)

4. How to handle all this?

Firstly, be patient. It takes a long time to acquire this mode. I’m not advising you to memorize the whole table, practice matters.

Try (looking at the beginning of the table) to formulate sentences with different verbs, then add negation, irregular verbs and reflexive verbs.

An interesting form of learning in this case is reading/watching recipes (there are many commands i.e. pica la cebolla- chop onion)

* at the bottom there is a link to the recipe for “tortilla de patatas”:):)

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jSq0OYndvKc

Good luck!!!

LIBRO 3

Libro 3, Modulo 1,2La comparación de los tiempos pasados
Tenses Summary

Podsumowanie czasów

We know that many of you can distinguish the tenses in Spanish with considerable difficulty. So in the near future, we’re going to be posting a little bit to make it clear.

In Spanish, we usually use 3 different times to talk about the past:

Pretérito Perfecto( he comido, he ido), Pretérito Indefinido ( comí, fui) and Pretérito Imperfecto( comía,iba)

It’s always the hardest to tell when we’re using Pretérito Perfecto, and when we’re using Pretérito Indefinido,

In the table below you can see typical situations in which a given time occurs, and here are some examples with their use.

Pretérito Perfecto

Hoy he montado en bicicleta.

Esta semana no he ido a la escuela.

Este año he viajado mucho.

Todavía no he comido churros.

¿Has ido alguna vez a Italia?

Pretérito Indefinido

Ayer comimos pollo.

Anoche dormí poco.

La semana pasada visité a mi abuela.

El mes pasado tuve mucho trabajo.

En 1983 murió un cantante famoso.

El jueves bebí demasiado.

Hace dos días fui a la piscina.

We encourage you to create your own sentences with these words, to make them permanent. Practice makes perfect 🙂

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